No Rain in the Rain Forest
While researching my previous blog A Dry Rainforest? I learned that Costa Rica is having a more extreme dry season than most and is actually experiencing a drought. To the untrained eye (like mine and most tourists) the forest appears fine; the plants are green and the lack of rain is assumed to be due to the dry season. For those familiar with rainforests, however, the signs are everywhere. Plants have fewer new growths than usual, deciduous trees have lost many of their leaves, and there have been many days with no precipitation at all. The cloud forest in Monteverde, normally a place of constant precipitation even in dry seasons, has received no precipitation for the past five days.
The drought has consequences reaching far beyond the rainforest. Hydroelectric dams generate approximately 82% of Costa Rica’s energy. The dropping water levels caused by the drought result in less water pressure to power the dams, reducing their total hydroelectric power. Costa Ricans must compensate by shifting to fossil fuels, hindering their goal to become the world’s first carbon neutral nation by 2021. It is believed that this drought is the result of a severe El Niño – the same weather system bringing floods to southern California – but the effect is exacerbated by recent climate trends. Global climate change has affected the region by increasing the number of completely dry days during the dry season. Since 2011 the area began experiencing over 100 dry days a year. Ironically, Costa Rica’s forced use of more fossil fuels only exacerbates the issue. If they are to achieve carbon neutral status, Costa Ricans (and the entire global population) will need to find a way to avoid regressing towards using fossil fuels.