For people that are going into the ‘deep field,’ i.e., people like our field party that will go away from the station and camp out somewhere, there is a food warehouse where you pack the food you’ll need for your field stay. If you are not very far away from McMurdo Station, you can get resupplied with food if a helicopter is going that way (see note above about frozen food). Since we don’t hike into our camping sites, we can take frozen, canned, and dried food.
For people staying in McMurdo, there is a cafeteria where everyone eats and the food is plentiful and very good. They say you burn almost 3000 calories/day just keeping warm, so food is very important for your survival!
There is a food warehouse, where you pack food for the field (see photo at left). Because it’s so cold, usually around –30°F, it’s possible to take frozen food out into the field and leave it in boxes outside your tents. Since there are no land animals in Antarctica (except for a wingless fly on the Antarctic Peninsula), there’s no problem with leaving food outside! - Co-PI and Curator, Edith Taylor
The US National Science Foundation provides almost all the clothing, food, and camping gear you will need in Antarctica. There is a clothing warehouse in Christchurch, New Zealand (the place we fly from to reach continental Antarctica), where each field party member tries on the cold weather gear before they go to the field.
In McMurdo, your gear is waiting for you (put together by workers that are there during the winter) to check out and make sure it is what you need, e.g., you check your tents to make sure there are no holes (see below).
Why red coats? Maybe they chose red because it is easy to see whether you're on rocks or ice and snow. There is probably a safety factor of the "dumb beakers" (what the support people, especially the military folks, used to call us scientists!) getting lost somewhere! - Co-PI and Curator, Edith Taylor
Fieldwork takes place in what is fall in the Northern Hemisphere, but spring in the Southern. The fall in the Northern Hemisphere is spring in the Southern. In Antarctica, there are 24 hrs of light during the summer. The sun rises to only about 10 o’clock high and moves around in a circle during the 24 hrs. In the winter, it is too cold to do fieldwork and it is dark 24 hrs/day. In the summer in the Transantarctic Mountains, where we do fieldwork, it is usually around –30° F in the summer and can be –70-90° in the winter.
The U.S. has 3 permanent stations on the Ice (as it’s called): McMurdo, South Pole and Palmer (on Antarctic Peninsula). McMurdo has around 250 people that ‘winter over’ and around 1000 there in the summer.
Transportation: We fly commercial to Christchurch, NZ and then fly military cargo planes from there to Antarctica. The New York Air National Guard flies the transport planes, either jets early in the season when the runway is still frozen and hard, or ski-equipped LC-130 prop transport planes later in the season. The LC-130s also fly between McMurdo and South Pole, as well as taking field parties into field sites that are too remote for helicopters. This season, our team is relatively close to McMurdo, so they will be moved by helicopters and by Twin Otters, small planes that land on skis.
McMurdo is built on Ross Island in the Ross Sea – a volcanic island with an active volcano, Mt. Erebus.
After arriving in McMurdo, field party members who have not been there before must go through Field Safety Training. Here you learn how to travel across glaciers and usually you have to build a snow shelter (usually a snow cave) and stay in it overnight. You also learn how to rope yourselves together if you are traveling over crevassed areas. -Co-PI and Curator, Edith Taylor
Basically, there are three to four ways you can go to Antarctica: (1) as a tourist, (2) If you’re very wealthy, you can mount your own expedition!, (3) you can work for the contractor who manages the U.S. bases there for the National Science Foundation, or (4) you can go as an NSF-funded researcher.
You don’t need permits, but you must agree to abide by the Antarctic Treaty, signed in 1959 during the first International Geophysical Year, and subsequently agreed to by 50 parties. Some of the provisions are that you cannot collect anything, unless you are a funded research project, and you must stay a certain distance away from the wildlife, unless again you are a researcher studying the wildlife. Another provision of the Treaty is that Antarctica cannot be claimed by any nation and that the continent is open for scientific investigation and cooperation—basically a scientific preserve.
It takes months to prepare for an expedition. The PI must fill out about 50 pp of forms stating what gear the team will need. Each team member provides their sizes of clothing and boots, and has to get extensive medical and dental exams. The only gear that we take are some collecting tools, e.g., geologic hammers, a gasoline-powered jackhammer, and some extra clothes, e.g., extra liner gloves and extra mittens, as collecting rocks tends to tear up your gloves and mittens. - Co-PI and curator, Edith Taylor
We finished our field clothing ‘try-on’ this afternoon and have been told to report tomorrow (Weds) at 7:00 am. for our flight to the Ice. Of course, we’ve also been told that the weather is currently bad there, so we may not fly. Already, the ‘hurry up and wait’ that is so typical of Antarctic field work has started!
We arrived yesterday (Monday here) after our very long flight. Around midday, we took the bus into downtown Christchurch, visited the Botanical Garden and the Canterbury Museum. The weather is beautiful (as it’s spring here) and Christchurch is not called the Garden City for nothing. The gardens are spectacular! It seems every house has a neat little garden, some with roses blooming that are a half-foot across. We are too late to see the tree-sized rhododendrons, however, as this is later than we’ve left for the Ice before.
The Canterbury Museum had a spectacular exhibit of photographs from Robert Falcon Scott’s 1911 expedition to the Pole and Shackleton’s 1914-1917 trans-Antarctic expedition. Their ship was trapped in the ice in the Weddell Sea (first leg of their journey), crushed, and eventually sank. He and all his men survived by taking the life boats to Elephant Island (after dragging them across the ice) and then Shackleton and two others went on to South Georgia Island to get help. The Canterbury Museum had photos and artifacts (clothing, equipment, etc.) of the two expeditions and it was an amazing display. Makes you very grateful for high-tech synthetic clothing, helicopters, and aircraft!
Our field party (including the two researchers from Wisconsin that we hadn’t met yet) are a great group of people and we have had great fun so far, so I’m sure it will go well on the Ice.