Thursday, May 26, 2016

Michael Engel's article "Extreme Morphogenesis and Ecological Specialization among Cretaceous Basal Ants" in Current Biology focuses on the ecological specializations of various ant lineages. Major highlights from the article include a "unicorn" ant with oversized mandibles discovered from Cretaceous Myanmar amber, exaggerated head structures composed highly specialized trap for large prey, Haidomyrmecine ants were found to be solitary specialist predators rather than social ants as most species tend to live, and lastly, some basal lineages were found to have a refined ecology shortly following the advent of ants. You can read more about these findings here.

Drawing of the unicorn ant by YANG Dinghua and Vincent Perrichot 

News Type:
Research News
Thursday, May 19, 2016

Michael Engel, senior curator of entomology, and Laura Breitkreuz, a graduate student in the entomology division, have recently been published in the journal of Current Biology regarding their work on Cretaceous mesochrysopids. In their article titled "Early Morphological Specialization for Insect-Spider Associations in Mesozoic Lacewings" Engel and Breitkreuz report on the discovery of a unique mode of life among mid-Cretaceous mesochrysopids, an early stem group to modern green lacewings exhibiting a combination of morphiological modifications in both adults and larvae unkown among living and fossil Neuroptera (lacewings, antlions, and their relatives) even across winged insects. For more on this topic and the implications of such a discovery, click through to the full article here

News Type:
Research News
Monday, May 9, 2016
Ron Seidel

By Ron Seidel

 Raintree students examine prints of various beetles during their Art Engagement class-Photo credit Caroline Chaboo.

Students at Raintree Montessori School in Lawrence are turning their research of the natural world into art, and in turn, are helping educate others.

Caroline Chaboo, curator of entomology, brought large prints of beetles into Raintree’s art engagement class, which is led by Cindy Sears. The class of 12 students, ranging from seven to 10 years old, were captivated by the beetles’ ornate structures. After viewing the prints, the students decided to work together to research the beetles and curate an exhibit in Raintree.

The student-led research branched out to include staff and resources outside of their arts engagement class. For example, Raintree Latin instructor Will Sharp helped students learn to translate the scientific Latin names of beetles. The students were encouraged to pursue their interests as far as they wish, whether it be in arts, science, music, or other endeavors.

“When a child finds something they are truly passionate about, they want to return to the feeling again and again,” said Lleanna McReynolds, head of school at Raintree, “this can only happen when students are given time to pursue subjects of interest”

The students’ partnership with the Biodiversity Institute helps them to do just that. The students plan a series of bug-related events such as outdoor collecting, and watching and drawing insects and plants. Caroline connected the students with undergraduate entomology researchers who plan to volunteer their time at the events.


Students prepare the beetle exhibit, through which they will lead informative tours-Photo credit Cindy Sears.

By giving students resources to explore their interests beyond the classroom, McReynolds believes the students experience true development.

“Watching these children in the hallways of Raintree, using a level to adjust the artwork, writing the common names from the Latin and preparing to take visitors on tours and talk about what they have learned, that is when truly learning takes place,” said McReynolds, “there is nothing better.”



News Type:
Student News
Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Andrew Short, assistant curator, recently received a $6600 Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) supplement to his NSF Career award to support undergraduate student, Alex Kohlenberg, over the summer. Kohlenberg will be revising a genus of water scavenger beetles.

News Type:
Award Grant News
Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Ph.D. student, Marianna Simoes, co-mentored by Andrew Short and Town Peterson, has received the 2016 Coleopterists Society Graduate Student Research Enhancement Award to support the development of a molecular phylogeny of the Dorynotini leaf Beatles. 

News Type:
Award Grant News
Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Back in April, University of New Mexico Ph.D. candidate (and KU alum) Grey Gustafson  was on the hunt for a particular species of whirligig beetle in Alabama’s Conecuh National Forest, but something else caught his eye. As it turns out, this beetle is the first unequivocally new species of the whirligig family (Gyrinidae) to be described in the United States since 1991. Gustafson named it Dineutus shorti after University of Kansas coleopterist Dr. Andrew E. Z. Short.

Read more about Gustafson's discovery:

News Type:
In the News
Thursday, November 5, 2015

Charles MichenerThe University of Kansas mourns the passing of Distinguished Professor & Senior Curator Emeritus Charles D. Michener, aged 97.  Mich passed peacefully at home in Lawrence early on 1 November 2015, surrounded by his family.  Mich was born 22 September 1918 in Pasadena, California and into a family of avid naturalists.  Both of Mich's parents were active birders and members of the Western Bird Banding Association, and encouraged his passion for natural history.  By the age of 10 he had already made detailed notes on the regional flora, and began to shift his remarkable talents to the insects, particularly the bees.  At the age of 14 he wrote to the prominent bee systematist of the day, Theodore Cockerell (himself a former assistant of Alfred Russell Wallace) for advice in identifying species, and later spent a summer at Cockerell's home learning much about bees.  Mich published his first scientific paper at the age of 16, and at least partly based on data he had collected as early as age 12.  

Mich went to the University of California, Berkeley for his B.S. (1939) and Ph.D. (1941), the latter of which culminated in the monograph, "Comparative External Morphology, Phylogeny, and a Classification of the Bees", a work that garnered the A. Cressy Morrison Prize in Natural Sciences in 1942 and established him as the leading authority on bees.  In this work he provided a rigorous phylogenetic framework for understanding the evolution of bees, and a comprehensive classification of the world's fauna as it was then known.  It rightly ushered in the 'Michener Era' of bee study, and has remained strong ever since.  In 1942 Mich became curator at the American Museum of Natural History, assigned to the collection of butterflies and moths, and through this appointment became a resource to a young Paul Ehrlich and Vladimir Nabokov, among others.  During this period he also served in the U.S. Army's Sanitary Corps, working on mosquitoes and chiggers, before returning to his position at the AMNH.  His work on the Lepidoptera culminated in his 1952 monograph on the Saturniidae (a group that includes the famous 'Luna Moth'), which remains to this day the classic and definitive treatment of the family.

In 1948 Mich relocated to the University of Kansas, and remained there.  The move to Kansas afforded him the opportunity to return to his primary interest in bees.  At KU he was able to expand his work into bee biology and behavior, allowing him to more fully explore aspects of pollination biology and the influences on the evolution of their intricate social systems.  This work resulted in expansive treatments of leafcutter bees, and made possible the future development of the 'Alfalfa Leafcutter Bee' as a more efficient managed pollinator of such crops.  He explored the development of insect communication and social systems, developing theories for their evolution and a revised classification of arthropod social groups.  It was this body of work that would later be expanded upon by E.O. Wilson and others during the rise of the field of 'Sociobiology', and for which Mich's 1974 classic, "The Social Behavior of the Bees" remains a primary reference.  Simultaneously, Mich was working on the new quantitative methods in classification, with his colleagues Robert Sokal and Peter Sneath.  The earliest applications of their newly founded, 'Numerical Taxonomy' (or 'phenetics') were on the classification and evolution of osmiine bees, of with Mich was deeply involved at the time.  In April 1965 Mich became the first Kansan elected to the National Academy of Sciences, and this was followed by many other honors, too numerous to enumerate.  Mich received a prestigious Guggenheim Fellowship in 1955 which allowed him and his entire family to spend a year in Brazil working on the South American bee fauna, and a second Guggenheim supported the family for 14 months exploring bees in Africa in 1966 (exploring and collecting their way from South Africa to Uganda!).  A 1957 Fulbright Research Award took the family to Australia for a year, where Mich launched a generation of new bee biologists and later produced a massive monograph of the Australian and South Pacific bee fauna. 

Mich retired in 1989, but remained as active as ever and in 2000 published his magnum opus, "The Bees of the World".  At nearly 1000 pages it covered over 16,000 species and is, quite simply, the single greatest work produced on the subject.  That is until he revised it for an even more grand second edition in 2007.  After the second edition, Mich continued to write papers on bees, work on the bee research collection, correspond and consult with researchers worldwide, host visitors to the bee collection, advise students and colleagues at KU, identify species for pollination and conservation biologists, and bless everyone with his warm generosity.  He continued to visit the KU Biodiversity Institute's entomological collections as recently as mid-October. 

Aside from his numerous academic achievements, Mich was most importantly a genuinely wonderful human being.  Soft-spoken and mild in demeanor, he was generous with his time and expertise, and was always unassuming.  While many who achieve his level of fame become distant or self-absorbed, he was instead the consummate gentleman and had an open door through which one could walk in at any time and say, "Hi Mich, can I ask you a question?"  To which he would always set aside what he was doing, turn with a warm smile, fold his hands characteristically, and listen and converse for as long as one would like, and on any subject.  He treated everyone with the same level of affectionate dignity.  His kind manner was a constant in a world of persistent change, and is missed. 

Everyone at KU mourns his loss, and offer to his family their most heartfelt condolences. 

KU Endowment maintains the “Charles D. Michener Bee Collection Fund (Acct. 32534)”, which supports the continued maintenance, growth, and development of the finest collection of the world’s bee fauna – the result of Mich’s lengthy tenure with KU and his life-long exploration into the diversity and biology of bees. 

A family obituary appeared in the 4 November, Lawrence Journal World.


News Type:
In the News
Monday, October 19, 2015

Emmanuel Toussaint, postdoctoral researcher in the lab of Andrew Short, has been awarded the 2016 R.J.H. Hintelmann Award, which is presented annually to a young scientist for outstanding achievements in zoological systematics, phylogenetics, faunistics or biogeography. He will travel to the Bavarian State Collection in Munich (Zoologischen Staatssammlung München) in January to present a talk and receive the award. 

News Type:
Award Grant News
Tuesday, September 15, 2015

beetle brood
Many scientists believe the very same dynamics that have shaped conflict between nations since the early 20th century also may govern how species evolve on Earth.

“The term ‘arms race’ originated with tense and competitive relationships that developed among European nations before World War I as they built up stockpiles of conventional weapons,” said Caroline Chaboo, assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Kansas and assistant curator with KU’s Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Institute. “The term has become widely used to describe competitive relationships.”

She said biologists have adopted the term for another kind of escalation — defenses, countertactics and one-upmanship among rivals in the natural world. 

“We know these evolutionary interactions can be fast, as in medicine where medical professionals and drug companies have a tense relationship with fast-evolving and drug-resistant pathogens, and they must design new and different cocktails to keep up with this enemy,” Chaboo said. “Other examples of tense relationships that drive evolution, counterevolutionary responses and one-upmanship include parasites and their hosts, seeds and seed-eating bugs, hunters and prey.”

According to Chaboo, such arms races influence the mechanics of evolution, as traits developed for defense over time result in entirely new species.

“One member of the relationship is attacking or resisting while the other is evolving to overcome defenses or avoid attack,” she said. “The competition can be at the level of genes, sexes or individuals. Ultimately, the one-upmanship drives diversity in a certain direction. Enemies make the population better. Thus, the more fit individuals — those with better escape responses, more effective offenses, better weapons to fight — avoid elimination and live on to reproduce and contribute their genes to subsequent populations.”

While the arms-race model is popular in evolutionary studies, it needs more validation from field research, Chaboo said.

Now, she and colleagues Ken Keefover-Ring of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Paula “Alex” Trillo of Gettysburg College have been awarded a two-year, $150,00 National Science Foundation EAGER grant to study questions from the arms-race model of defenses in leaf beetles. The fieldwork will take place at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama next summer.

Chaboo and her team will focus in part on the evolving defenses and tactics of tortoise beetles.

“In the larval stage, tortoise beetles exhibit a very different array of physical, behavioral and chemical traits,” she said. “Baby insects lack wings, and their first reaction to interference is to walk away. A large group of tortoise beetles has lateral projections which function in different ways — these break up the body outline, making the larva ‘disappear’ against its background, and they are armed with pointed hairs that may act as lances.”

Chaboo said many tortoise beetle species also show gregarious behaviors, living in groups. Working together, they diffuse plant toxic chemicals as each member ingests a small amount, and they also present a more intimidating herd to an “interloper.”

Also, the beetles expertly defend themselves with the ick factor.

“By far, the most peculiar defense is the recycling of their own feces and cast skins — exoskeletons of earlier larval stages — into a shield that is worn like an umbrella over the body,” she said. “This shield can ‘hide’ the larva, making it look like a damaged leaf to an aerial enemy, or form a nasty physical barrier to probing enemy mouthparts.” 

One arms-race strategy researchers will study in depth is the “escape and radiation” tactic, found in tortoise beetles, whereby new traits that better deter attack arise in a species. That species flourishes, free of enemy attack —to radiate or split into two or more species, giving rise to richer biodiversity.

“Individuals that survive day-to-day conflicts grow to adulthood, reproduce and leave more of their offspring with refined traits in successive generations,” Chaboo said. “Over evolutionary time, new traits and new trait combinations result in more diversity. We can compare lineages in our new evolutionary trees to determine how they diverged and radiated and identify which traits or suites of traits may be influencing radiations.”

Chaboo said the grant would present different challenges at each stage.

“The experimental work requires us raise up large populations of beetles in a greenhouse, and we have just one field season,” she said. “The sequence-phylogenies have bioinformatics issues. Integrating the phylogeny, behavioral and chemical datasets is a challenge, which is why we were invited to submit our proposal to the NSF EAGER program in the first place as a high-risk, high pay-off study.”

But with high risk comes high reward: A better understanding of arms-race theory derived from studying the beetles could help us better grasp our own evolution, Chaboo said.

“The work on beetles might demonstrate fundamental principles about how antagonistic and competitive relationships drive evolution and generate diversity,” she said. “This can explain partly how our world looks and even explain human evolution. What aspects of human morphology and behavior can be traced back to the impact of our ancestors trying to avoid being prey or becoming more adept hunters?”

Chaboo said the research team would develop an online educational resource in both English and Spanish about subsocial insects like beetles.  “Subsociality is far lesser known than true sociality. Our content with images and movies should fill a knowledge gap,” she said.

Along the way, the biologist and her colleagues will continue to mentor U.S. undergraduates alongside Panamanian students in international field research.

“We anticipate involving Panamanian schoolteachers as well through existing outreach programs at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute,” she said. 

Article by Brendan Lynch.
Photo above: Beetle mom with brood of larvae in French Guiana (Credit: Pascal Bonin) 

News Type:
Research News
Thursday, March 5, 2015

The National Science Foundation has awarded entomology curator Andrew Short a grant of $700,000 for his proposal “CAREER: Teaching Modern Biodiversity Science from Fieldwork to Phylogeny: Diversity, Systematics, & Evolution of Ecologically Promiscuous Aquatic Beetles.” The grant includes resources for undergraduate and graduate student opportunities, including fieldwork in Suriname and Guyana.

Freshwater and terrestrial habitats demand dramatically different sets of morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits. Consequently, animals at each end of this habitat continuum exhibit starkly different morphologies and life histories, and lineages must overcome numerous challenges to transition between these divergent ways of life. Nevertheless, insects have repeatedly crossed the freshwater-terrestrial boundary in many independent groups. Despite this diversity and abundance, little is known about how insects evolve across this seemingly formidable aquatic-terrestrial boundary and how this affects the evolutionary trajectories of these lineages. Using the beetle family Hydrophilidae, a lineage which has diversified in a range of fully aquatic, terrestrial, and intermediate habitats and has transitioned between them repeatedly, Short and the students will examine (1) the ecological and morphological transitions associated with aquatic-terrestrial habitat shifts, and (2) both the macroevolutionary (e.g., changes in diversification rate) and intraspecific (e.g., differences in genetic structuring) consequencesof these shifts. By combining fieldwork, revisionary taxonomy, RAD-seq phylogeography and phylogenetics with immersive undergraduate coursework and graduate student training, this team will disentangle the evolutionary history of habitat transitions in water beetles.


News Type:
Award Grant News