In class I learned to classify a rainforest as a forest that receives ample precipitation throughout the year. I was confused then to find out that the Carara National Forest, while still a vibrant green, is currently in its dry season. We learned that there are different formations, or classifications, of rainforests that depend on factors including climate, soil, and elevation. Carara, for example, is a seasonal forest because it experiences a wet and dry season.
The seasonal changes in Carara are not due to Earth’s axial tilt, like the seasons we are used to in temperate climates. Instead, the seasons are a result of wind patterns over the mountainous continental divide. During the summer strong trade winds drive clouds from the Caribbean side of Costa Rica over the continental divide to the Pacific side. On their journey up the mountains the clouds lose much of their precipitation and create a rain shadow effect in Pacific forests like Carara. In the winter, the trade winds die down and allow clouds from the Pacific side to rise up over the central mountains, thus beginning the wet season.
Photo credit: Tracey Funk
On a night hike at the University of Georgia field station, I encountered a hairy friend, Edith. Edith is a Costa Rican Orange-Kneed Tarantula (Brachypelma smithi) that has inhabited a miniature triangular cave for the past year. Female tarantulas live up to 20 years, and occupy a cave or burrow where they wait to ambush unsuspecting prey.
Bradley Hiatt, our night hike guide and a resident naturalist, explained that Edith had been sitting on her egg sac for 6 months. Only one baby tarantula could be found beneath Edith’s wooly legs, the rest left the burrow after their first molt. The male tarantulas pursue females, so they have a lower survival rate than the females who wait in their burrows.
Costa Rican Orange-Kneed Tarantulas are omnivorous and will eat anything, from insects to small rodents. Irritating hairs on the tarantula’s body are used for protection and to catch prey. When attacked, a tarantula will flick the hairs off into a cloud of dust and hairs so it can quickly escape. Edith has been attacked and used these flicking hairs; the evidence is the bald spot on her abdomen. If the tarantula is backed into a corner, it will perform a threat display before biting its attacker with its malicious fangs. This tarantula species’ bite is not lethal to humans but you may have a nasty wound or allergic reaction.
Edith is one of many extraordinary creatures I observed in Costa Rica. Seeing Edith in her natural habitat positively impacted my perception of peculiar or misinterpreted organisms.
On Tuesday morning we traveled to hike at Carara National park, near Punta Leona. Our nature guide for the day, Maurice Vasquez told us about his line of work and its required education. Maurice has worked in the park for 18 years. He explained the challenging path to become a nature guide in Costa Rica. Certified guides have a unique I.D. indicating they received proper training in Costa Rican biology and culture, environmental and social ethics, communication, first aid, and education. This impressive array of communicative skills was gained while working toward a post-bachelor's degree in a biological field for three years, which is required to become a guide. Maurice told us he is fluent in Spanish, English, German, and French. He explained that he attended university in Hamburg and took up German there. Maurice's dedication to his career and to wildlife was contagious, and he stopped and taught anyone he could while on the trails. I think he is the embodiment of Costa Rica's motto "pure life." He really seemed to embrace the astounding biodiversity of the country with pride.
En route to Jaco from San Jose there is a bridge over the Rio Tarcoles made famous from the large population of American Crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) that gather down below. The bridge has become a popular ecotourist stop, and after going there I see why. The bridge is just wide enough that people can exit their cars and walk alongside the road. We counted 26 enormous crocodiles in the water below us!
The reason for the large population is unclear, but their presence is evidence of the respect Costa Ricans hold for the environment. The crocodiles thrive because they are protected by the Costa Rican government. In 2012, a law was unanimously passed to ban all sport-hunting in Costa Rica. Not only was this the first law of its kind in the Americas, but it was also the first bill in Costa Rica to be proposed by popular initiative. Because of the widespread value Costa Ricans place on their environment, there is a large public movement to protect wildlife. The petition for the law submitted to Congress had 177,000 signatures.
While exploring Lankester Botanical Gardens, we came across a Yucca tree. Yucca is a genus in the Asparagaceae family, comprising an estimated 50 species. Yucca is native throughout Central America and in parts of South America. Due to its high adaptability, yuccas are often spotted in diverse climatic and ecological conditions. Its most notable characteristics are the branching blade-like leaves and when in bloom and assortment of white flowers. The assembly of the leaves creates a canal system for water to travel to the roots for storage. Most species also encompass a dense, waxy coating that assists in preventing water loss.
Yuccas are typically cultivated as garden and even architectural plants. The yucca flower is the national flower of El Salvador and it is often brought to cemeteries. Many parts of the yucca are edible, from the seeds to the flowers. In Costa Rica, for instance, the flowers are cooked with eggs for a traditional dish, especially during Holy Week and Easter. In Native American cultures, the roots of the Yucca elata, also known as the soaptree, are used as a shampooing agent. In other cultures, dried yucca leaves serve as a handy apparatus to start fires. Just as there are a wide variety of species in this genus, there is an equal diversity of uses by different cultures.
Chaboo taking the zany zip-lining plunge in Costa Rica.
In June 2015, I visited Costa Rica with 14 KU undergraduates for the annual field course. The research part, funded by KU’s Office of International Programs, was to examine the arthropod communities of Zingiberales host plants (bananas and ginger are the most familiar examples). I personally enjoyed the country so much, that I returned with my family for Christmas holidays, spending the week at the spectacular Manuel Antonio National Park in the Pacific coastal town of Quepos. We enjoyed the adventurous personality of Costa Rica, with beaches, hiking, and zip-lining. Then came my eight KU undergraduates for the field course and new adventures in this beautiful country.
I am Luke Schletzbaum from Overland Park, Kansas and I’m a Junior majoring in Organismal Biology. Some of the things that inspired me to enter my field are habitat loss, species conservation, and science education. I chose to go on this field biology trip with Dr. Chaboo mostly due to the location and the ability to conduct fieldwork in a location renowned for its incredible biodiversity. Over the course of the trip I hope to gain experiences locating and obtaining specimens and how to categorize and prepare them for study.
When I entered KU I heard many things about how great the study abroad program is.I waited until an opportunity intrigued me, and this was the one!
My name is Shannon Pelkey, but I go by Nikki. I am a freshman at KU studying Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, Organismal Biology and Environmental Studies. I also am interested in becoming fluent in French! Hopefully this trip to Costa Rica will give me a chance to explore the Spanish language and gain experience in field research, biology, and conservation. I chose this study abroad trip to experience a new culture and learn the basics of being a biologist, so I can get a glimpse of my future career. I am inspired by nature and people, and I feel like we have not lived in harmony with the earth for some time. I want to educate governments and people in conservation and sustainability so that we do not drive ourselves off this planet we are destroying. Although space travel would be extremely cool, I would rather have a future more like the television series Star Trek than the movie Interstellar! This time spent in Costa Rica will hopefully give me new knowledge and experiences so I can gain skills and make a few good memories along the way.
My name is Tracey Funk and I am a freshman at KU studying Biology. I have always been interested in ecology and enjoy spending time outdoors. Participating in the Field Biology program in Costa Rica will give me an opportunity to develop my research skills and experience true fieldwork. I am especially looking forward to seeing a cloud forest firsthand and learning more about the dynamics in the unique ecosystem. My favorite aspect of ecology is exploring the relationships between different organisms. While in Costa Rica, I hope to compare and contrast the relationships in tropical ecosystems to those in the prairie ecosystems I am familiar with in Kansas.
Hello! My name is Xiaomin Zhou and I currently study Molecular Biosciences at the University of Kansas. I am participating in the Costa Rica field biology program for the unique opportunity to expand my class-based Biology background with new experiences: living in the ecosystem, observing the live plants and animals, learning about species interactions, and the classification and identification of characters. During this course, I hope to gain insight into fieldwork and field research to broaden my understanding and appreciation of biodiversity, while exploring the tropical environments of Costa Rica. I also look forward to learning more about Central American culture because I study the Spanish language.